Liquid cooling is just like forced convection in that fluid is forced through the system by an external source like a pump. While most applications use water or water/glycol mixtures as the primary fluids, any liquid can be used, including liquid refrigerants, fluorocarbons, gasoline, hydraulic fluid, or oil to name a few. Liquids are more efficient then forced air because the specific heat of liquid is higher than the specific heat of air and just like forced air cooling, liquid cooling is most efficient if the fluid is turbulent. However, turbulent flow puts a strain on the pump.
There are various methods of construction which can be used on liquid cold plates to minimize the strain of the pump and still achieve the required thermal performance.
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